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Micro Biology

MICROBIOLOGY--definition

            Study of living organisms of microscopic size

                        generally organisms <1mm = microorganism (microbe)

            Consists of 5 groups of organisms:

                        bacteria, protozoa, viruses, algae, and fungi

 

MICROBIOLOGICAL WORLD--Discovered 300 years ago  B.P.-Most recent 40 years

            Microscopes and the discovery of the microbial world

                        Janssen  1590--invention of microscope (200-300 X)

                        Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)  Dutch merchant

                                    “Animalcules”

                                    1683--Royal Society of London letters

                                                cocci, bacilli, and spirilli

            Spontaneous generation versus biogenesis

                        Abiogenesis--non-living

                        Biogenesis-- “seeds” or “germs” --living

                        Spontaneous generation controversy

                                    John Needham (1713-1781)  1749

                                    Lazaro Spallanzani (1729-1799)

                                    Franz Schulze (1815-1873)

                                    Theodore Schwann (1810-1882)

                                    Schroder and von Dusch  1850--filtered air experiment

                                    John Tyndall  1870’s--dust free box

                                    Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)  1860’s-- “gooseneck flask”

                        Germ Theory of Fermentation  1850’s

                                    Microbial fermentation of beverages and foods

                                                Mesopotamian tablet 500 B.C.

                                                Culture

                                                Pasteurization  (62.8 C for 30 minutes)

                                    Role of microorganisms in transformation of matter

                                                Putrefaction--breakdown of proteins

                                                Fermentation--breakdown of CHO’s

                        Germ Theory of Disease

                                    1546--Fracastoro of Verona  (1483-1553)

                                    1762--von Plenciz of Vienna

                                    1843--Oliver Wendell Holmes  (1809-1894)

                                    1840’s--Ignaz Phillip Semmelweis  (1818-1865)

                                    1877 -- Pasteur--anthrax--Bacillus anthracis

                                    1870’s--Robert Koch  (1843-1910) agents of infection

 

            Development of Laboratory Techniques and Procedures

                        Culturing--medium

                        Pure culture concept --colony--progeny of single microbe

                        Koch’s Postulates--isolation and identification of causal agents (etiology)

           

 

Prevention and Treatment of Microbial Diseases

                        Etiology for most diseases discovered 1845-1898

                        Immunization--foul cholera  (Pasteur)

                                    bacterial virulence (attenuation) --antibodies

                                    vaccines--attenuated cultures of bacteria

                                    Edward Jenner  (1749-1823)  1796 cowpox immunization

                                    Pasteur  (Joseph Meister) --rabies

                        Phagocytosis--Elie Metchnikoff  (1845-1916)  leukocytes

                        Antisepsis

                                    John Lister  (1827-1912)  carbolic acid

                                                aseptic techniques

                        Chemotherapy--Paul Ehrlich  (1845-1915)  1909  Salvarsan

                                    1909--arsenical compounds--syphilis

                                    1930’s--Gerhard Domagk--sulfonamides

                                    1929--Alexander Fleming  (1881-1955)

                                                Penicillium notatum

 

GOLDEN AGE OF MICROBIOLOGY

            Pasteur confirmed Koch’s research

            World Centers of Microbiology

                        PARIS                                                 BERLIN

                        Pasteur                                                 Koch

                        Mechanism of infectious disease            Isolation/cultivation

                        Recovery and immunity             Characterization

 

            Widening Horizons  (non-medical)

            1892--Dmitri Ivanowski--filterable causative agent

 

BASIC STRUCTURAL UNIT OF LIFE--THE CELL

            Cell Theory--Matthias Schleiden and Theodore Schwann  1838

            Characteristics of living things

1)      Reproductive ability

2)      Ingestion and assimulation of nutrients (metabolism)

3)      Excretive ability

4)      Irritability

5)      Susceptibility to mutation

Classification of Microorganisms

            3 Kingdom System--Haeckel

            5 Kingdom System--Whittaker

Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology 8th ed. (1974)

            Monera--Procaryotae

Eucaryote versus Procaryote

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